Case of «Donbass» Euroregion Introduction The transition process that started in the late 80s - early 90s of the XX century in Central and Eastern Europe, has led to the activation of transboundary research in many countries.
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Particular attention is paid to the common border regions of the European Union and their eastern neighbors. Cross-border cooperation in general and the establishment of Euroregions particularly, are considered as potential means to overcome economic backwardness and to increase the competitiveness of peripheral border regions. Borderland is an area where differences are leveled leading to formation of zones with specific features common to the either sides.
The ambiguity of functions is typical for the boundaries; it is a combination of barrier and contact characteristics. The boundary separates the regions, prevents the trade, financial flows and restricts flow of information. But at the same time inter-territorial connections are realized through the border and a significant part of economic and political relations in Europe are implemented through them Mezhevich, N.
As most European researchers understand, cross-border cooperation is cooperation between border regions and a cross-border region is a potential region inseparable in geography, history, ecology, ethnic groups, economic új ismeretség soha időben and the ect.
Border regions occupy a dual position in the economic space of a state, being both a center of communications and a periphery of the state Mezhevich, N. As border regions, Donetsk and Lugansk regions are the contact zones of Ukraine with the outside world.
Using of this contact potential, strengthening cross-border cooperation with neighboring regions of Russia may become the basis for their social and economic development. Voronezh region has joined the Euroregion Donbass in International Association, Donbass is the seventh Euroregion, created with Ukraine participation, and the fourth on its eastern border after "Slobozhanshchina"Dnieper and Yaroslavna In its current form with minor subsequent adjustmentsthe boundary between Russia and Ukraine was fixed with the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic by the Treaty of limits, approved on March 10, by Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine.
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The administrative border between the Soviet republics became the state boundary after Ukraine had got its independence on August 24, Chernomaz P. The area of borderland was populated in connection with the development of the Donets coal Basin in the second half of XIX century. The powerful coal and metallurgical base was formed in the Soviet period in the Donets Basin. Today Donbass is divided by the Russian- Ukrainian border, which often «cut» urban agglomerations and other whole in the recent past settlements closely bounded by historical, economic and especially social and cultural ties not long ago Kolosov V.
According to the census Ukrainians inhabit the territory of the Rostov region 1. Russian population of Ukraine amounts to 8. Social and economic dimensions of cross-border cooperation The success of cross-border cooperation of Donetsk, Lugansk and Rostov regions largely depends on economic and social development of the regions on both sides of the border.
The territory of the Rostov region in nearly two times larger than the territory of neighboring Donetsk and Lugansk regions combined, but Rostov thous. In addition, the Ukrainian border area is more urbanized: the proportion of urban population is The demographic crisis is a common phenomenon both for Russian and Ukrainian border areas.
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The natural decline of population is representative for all three regions of borderland, but in the Ukrainian regions the situation is much worse, notably. While in the Rostov region mortality rate exceeds the birth rate by 4.
Low fertility and high mortality affect demographic situation, but if the fertility rate in the border areas of both countries is not very different, the mortality rate in the Donetsk Taking into account the demographic problems in all three regions of the border area there can be a shortage of manpower resources for the future development of flört nem verbaal gedrag economy. The volume of industrial production in the Donetsk region is nearly two times higher than in the Rostov region.
In residential buildings with total area of ,0 thousand egyetlen nő keres cég meters were constucted in the Rostov 10 10 Anna Valerievna Shmytkova -Ekaterina Safronova: Ways of Regional Cooperation region. The flört nem verbaal gedrag construction volume reached only ,1 thousand square meters in the Donetsk region and ,8 thousand square meters in the Lugansk region.
Meanwhile, comissioning of dwellings per 1, population is equivalent in both Ukrainian regions and less than the rate in the Rostov region in 5. The contrasts between the neighboring municipal districts in terms of housing construction are even more significant: only 3.
Ukrainian border regions are significantly inferior to the Rostov region considering the volume of fixed asset investments. In Rostov region received 3. The largest volume of fixed asset investments went to the coal mining districts of the Rostov region: Octyabrsky, Kamensky, Millerovsky, Krasnosulinsky.
It reflects life standards and conditions. The average nominal monthly wage in the Rostov region was approximately 1. The retail flört nem verbaal gedrag per capita reflects the difference in real income more adequately than wages. In the volume of retail trade turnover per capita in the Rostov region reached ,8 rubles, while in flört nem verbaal gedrag Donetsk region it was ,3 rubles, and in the Lugansk region ,3 rubles.
On the Ukrainian side only Shakhtersky district of the Donetsk region with retail turnover per capita ,5 rubles approached the border districts of the Rostov region, but this figure was less than 10 thousand rubles in other Ukrainian municipal districts. Even large cities of Ukrainian borderland such as Donetsk ,0 rubles and Lugansk ,5 rubles were inferior to Rostov-on-Don with its turnover per capita of rubles. The development of foreign economic relations Foreign economic relations play an important role in the development of border areas.
They help to overcome flört nem verbaal gedrag peripheral, marginal position of border regions in national economic systems Vardomsky L. Foreign trade turnover of the Rostov region with Ukraine amounted to 3 billion million U.
In flört nem verbaal gedrag to the Donetsk region increased 3 times and import 1. Above all it is presented by ferrous and nonferrous metals and engineering products.
Its purchase by Transmashholding has opened traditional and capacious Russian market for the Lugansk company and has provided stable orders of JSC Russian Railways.
The same group includes the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant, and this opens up opportunities for cooperation Kolosov, V. Russian investments to Ukraine s economy have amounted to 1.
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Ukrainian investments to Russian economy are much less: on January 1, the volume of direct Ukrainian investments to Russia reached million US dollars . Egyetlen találkozón 41 significant investor in the primary sector of the Don economy is Ukrainian metallurgical plant Zaporizhstal.
In Ltd. Shahtostroymontazh acquired the concentrator Sholokhov in the Rostov region, and flört nem verbaal gedrag together with JSC Zaporizhstal and a group of Rostov entrepreneurs created JSC Sholokhovskoe for processing of Kuzbass coking coal, with subsequent shipment of coal concentrates to Ukrainian plants. Having got the deposit, the shareholders Zaporizhstal announced plans to build the mine Bystrianska for extraction of coking coal Naumenko, S. In the Holding Group Nord opened the new plant Intertekhnika South in city of Matveyev Kurgan for production and servicing of refrigeration equipment, transport air conditioners and home appliances.
The total investment in new plant exceeds million rubles. Conclusion The border regions due to increasing cooperation can compensate the shortcomings of the peripheral position and become the poles of growth of the economies of countries, participating in the cooperative.
Despite all the problems, different levels of socio-economic 13 Anna Valerievna Shmytkova -Ekaterina Safronova: Ways of Regional Cooperation 13 development, border territories of Ukraine and Russia are the single ethno-cultural regions with a common historical memory.
Prospects for Ukrainian border areas cooperation with the Russian regions will largely depend on how quickly barrier function of boundaries will be reduced.
Creation of Euroregion develops additional opportunities of cross-border economic, social and cultural interaction, and allows to turn the difficult geopolitical and geoeconomic position of border region into unique advantage.
References  Vardomsky, L. P  Demoskop Weekly electronic resource. Mode of access:  Mezhevich, N. P  Naumenko, C.
Vendina, O. Moscow  Rougemont, D. Strasbourg  Russians of Ukraine abandon their history and language?
Activities aiming at improving coordination and ensuring optimal allocation of funds from the EU budget should be continued. Due to the partnership principle and the existence of a unique management system, the Cohesion Policy makes it possible to spread the benefits of European integration and of the common market on all of its levels, from local to EU level.
The cohesion policy s implementation in Poland which accrued in the period to the EU countries amounted to Introduction Between and Poland efficiently absorbed the EU funds, which translated into a significant impact of the Cohesion Policy on economic growth, investment activity and labour market.
The EU funds allowed the GDP growth rate to accelerate, which means that the gap between Poland and highly developed EU economies will continue to narrow. The Cohesion Policy also contributed to a marked increase in employment and a fall in unemployment Not only did it result from the volume of allocations, but also from the cumulative effects of implementing subsequent programmes, the emergence of new impact areas and delayed effects.
It is expected flört nem verbaal gedrag the impact of the Cohesion Policy in the period up to will be even stronger than in recent years.
The relatively high GDP growth and in particular the fact that Poland managed to avoid recession in resulted to a considerable extent from flört nem verbaal gedrag effective absorption of the EU funds.
In the analysed period, the economic growth in Poland was mainly driven by domestic demand, which experienced significant shifts in the relation between consumption and capital formation caused by the high sensitivity of capital formation to changes in the economic situation. Inafter a two-year decline, investment expenditures grew considerably 8. The EU funds were particularly relevant for the rise in the volume of public-sector investment.
In recent years, owing to this inflow, it was possible to maintain the total investment at the same level, despite a significant fall in private investment.
After its temporary decline inthe level of deficit and general government debt was again on the increase between andand társkereső nő antsirabe Poland was put under the excessive deficit procedure.
The difficulty in flört ellenére normális kapcsolat to a number of basic health services, educational facilities, but also to open labour markets is characteristic of less-developed areas with underdeveloped transport infrastructure, which in turn translates into higher unemployment.
As regards the average life expectancy in mer holnap társkereső Despite poorer health compared with the EU average, the Polish society, the youth in particular, engages in gaining knowledge and skills.
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InPoland had the highest scholarization rate of people aged Socio-economic effects of Poland s EU membership. Main conclusion on the 6th anniversary of membership. The share of persons attaining tertiary education among the population aged was systematically increasing by 4.
Between and Poland observed the fastest growth of 4.
The increasing employment contributed to lowering the unemployment rate by 4. Despite the relatively high nominal increase in salaries between and of This ranks Poland sixth from bottom in the EU.
Low pay, long-term unemployment and disability are the main causes of privation, poverty and exclusion which touched The volume of tax burdens still remains relatively low compared with other Member States in revenues from taxes and social insurance contributions accounted for However, entrepreneurs perceive tax procedures as burdensome, long-lasting and complicated 5.